From the Wikipedia entry on 'Figs in the Bible':
"The Jewish Encyclopedia
states that the fig tree is a symbol of the coming of the Mashiach
- The simple meaning of these parables, however, was lost later on, and they were taken to be allegories and mysteries, especially when they alluded to the Messianic expectations, about which it was not safe to speak in public, as they assumed the end of the kingdom of Satan (Rome; comp. Mark 4:11, Mark 4:34; Matt 13:1-52, especially Matt 13:35 and Matt 13:39). Thus "the parable of the fig-tree" (Mark 13:28; see Wellhausen, who is at a loss to explain it) is actually a "symbol" of the Messianic advent, according to the Midrash (Cant. R. ii. 13), but was no longer understood by the evangelists, either as an allegory or as a sign of Messianic success or failure, in the story of the blasted fig-tree (Mark 11:13-14, Mark 11:20-23)."
Searching on midrash & fig tree, I get a googlebooks exerpt from The New Testament and Rabbinic Literature by Reimund Bieringer: “The biblical images of vine and fig tree are symbols for Israel, abundance, the Day of the Lord, and the coming of Messiah; their absence signifies desolation..... Likewise, in rabbinic Midrash the fig tree and its fruits symbolize Israel and its good works or Torah teachings, the messianic age, the coming of Messiah, even the hour of death."
Jeremiah 8.13 :
"When I would gather them, says the Lord,
there are no grapes on the vine
nor figs on the fig tree:
even the leaves have withered,
and what I gave them has passed away from them."
Let me sing for my Beloved
a love song concerning his vineyard
My Beloved had a vineyard
on a very fertile hill.
He digged it and cleared it of stones
and planted it with choice vines;
He built a watchtower in the midst of it,
and hewed out a wine vat in it;
and He looked for it to yield grapes
but it yielded wild grapes.
And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem
and men of Judah,
judge, I pray you, between me
and my vineyard.
What more was there to do for my vineyard
that I have not done in it?
When I looked for it to yield grapes
why did it yield wild grapes?
And now I will tell you
what I will do in my vineyard.
I will remove its hedge
and it shall be devoured;
I will break down its walls
and it shall be trampled down.
I will make it a waste;
it shall not be pruned or hoed,
and briers and thorns shall grow up;
I will also command the clouds
that they rain no rain upon it.
For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts
is the house of Israel,
and the men of Judah
are his pleasant planting;
and He looked for justice,
but behold: bloodshed;
but behold: a cry!